The full form of FIR refers to the First Information Report. It is a written document prepared by Police for recoding the information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence.
FIR Full-Form | What is FIR?
The legal system of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan categorizes crime into Cognisable offense and non-cognisable offense
In the case of cognizable offense, the police may arrest a person without warrant.
In the case of Non-cognizable Offence, a police officer has no authority to arrest without warrant. It includes misbehavior, public annoyance, etc.
The police can file an FIR only for cognizable offences.
Why is FIR important?
First Information Report, full form of FIR, is an important document as it initiates the process of criminal justice in motion. It is only after the FIR is registered in the police station that the police begin the investigation of the case.
Who can lodge an FIR?
Anyone who knows about the occurrence of the offence can file an FIR. It may be a victim or the person who has witnessed the offence or who knows about the committed offence.
The police may not investigate a complaint even if after filing an FIR, when: (i) The case is not serious in nature, the police must mention the reasons for not investigating; (ii) The police feel that there is not enough ground to investigate and inform the person who has lodged a complaint —[Section 157, Criminal Procedure Code, 1973]
How to file a complaint?
Section 154 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973, contains the procedure for filing an FIR (though the section does not include the word “FIR” or “First Information Report”).
- When information about the commission of a cognizable offence is given orally, the police must write it down and read it over to the informant.
- Once the information has been recorded by the police, it must be signed by the informant.
- Such information must be updated in the record by the police officer. A copy of the complaint shall be given to the informant free of cost and the original FIR must be sent to the Magistrate
- It must be ensured that the copies of complaint have been stamped bearing Daily Diary Number.
- Once the FIR is registered, the contents cannot be changed. However, any additional information may be added to it.FIR is not supposed to be made during an investigation.
How to file FIR online?
e-FIR can be filed for cognizable offences which include rape, kidnapping, murder, death related to dowry among others. In such cases, the police can make necessary arrests and investigation even without the order of the court. The facility of filing FIR online exists in some of the states in India.
What should be mentioned in the FIR?
- Name and address of the informant;
- Date, time and location of the incident being filed;
- The genuine facts of the incident as they occurred;
- Identification and descriptions of the persons involved in the incident;
- Witnesses, if any
What if FIR is not registered?
- The aggrieved person can send a complaint in writing and by post to the Superintendent of Police concerned.
- Superintendent of Police if satisfied with the complaint, he shall either investigate the case himself or order an investigation to be made.