The full form of TRP is known as Television Rating Point. It is defined as a tool for evaluating the rate of viewership of any particular channel or program for 30 days. It acts as a source to provide an index of the choice of the public and determine the popularity of a particular show/program. The results are used by advertisers to determine how often an advertisement is seen by a specific target audience by media channels to plan their show timings.
TRP Full Form
Target audiences are usually defined in terms of demographic and psychographic profiles, and exographic profiles. Demographics explain the segment of the audience is in quantifiable terms such as age, gender, household income and educational attainment. Psychographics and exographics explain the motivational quotient of consumer behaviour.
In India, TRPs are evaluated by the only electronic rating agency-INTAM (Indian Television Audience Measurement).
The agency uses two methods for calculating TRP,
Traditional method– Under this method, an electronic device, named as people meters (that automatically records the frequency of channels watched) is being installed in some households by the agency. The traditional method is also called a frequency monitoring technique.
This box has buttons and a number on the meter assigned to each person living in the household who is required to push the buttons whenever he/she starts watching and push off the button when not watching.
The meter stores and periodically transmits all these data through the family’s telephone line or some gateways to the central server.
Then it is this server is installed with a specific algorithm to process the average of the frequency taken for 30 days, sent by Sample “people’s meters”. These frequencies are later decoded into channel names and a national viewership rating or TRP is generated.
TRPs = Reach among target audience (%) x Average frequency
The method has two drawbacks-
- People meters are expensive and are imported from abroad.
- The frequency of the channel is often changed by the cable before transmitting the signals. Hence, the ratings become unreliable.
Modern method- Using this method, video signals are transmitted through satellite channels at particular intervals. This method is also known as a picture monitoring technique. Every channel signal is decoded at the INTAM station and the TRPs are generated. This technique is more reliable to use.
The TRP system is designed by the Broadcasting Audience Research Council (BARC).
- TRPs have a major impact on the programming content of Television channels. Accountability, transparency, and objectivity of Television Rating system play a significant role in preventing false and misleading rating which can have an effect not only on broadcasters and the advertisers but more importantly the viewing public.
- Broadcasting companies can make more profits from advertisers when there are shows with higher ratings.
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